Puglia

Il paradosso di Tap, sotto inchiesta sia gli attivisti che la multinazionale

Da diversi anni in Salento è in corso una mobilitazione popolare contro la costruzione del gasdotto TAP, gigantesca infrastruttura di trasporto del gas destinata ad approdare sulle coste salentine e che viene osteggiata dalla popolazione locale. Una protesta contro cui si è dispiegata una macchina repressiva fuori misura. Intanto anche la multinazionale Tap è finita sotto la lente degli inquirenti con accuse molto gravi

Il 12 novembre 2017 in zona San Basilio a Melendugno (Le) si materializzano le recinzioni per il cantiere da cui partiranno i lavori di escavazione di un microtunnel che porterà il gasdotto Tap dal mare alla terra. Nel corso dell’estate dalla zona erano stati rimossi 235 ulivi, alcuni dei quali secolari, atto che fece da detonatore al malcontento locale sull’opera, già maturato in anni di autocapacitazione su quanto stava avvenendo nei propri territori. Dal 24 luglio si forma vicino al cantiere, su un terreno di proprietà di un cittadino privato che aveva dato l’autorizzazione per usarlo, un presidio permanente, luogo di vigilanza, aggregazione, informazione, frequentato giorno e notte da attivisti e simpatizzanti della protesta.

Durante la notte del 13 novembre 2017 una seconda ordinanza prefettizia istituisce una “zona rossa” attorno al cantiere del gasdotto Tap, rendendo la zona inaccessibile al pubblico.

La polizia e una società di sicurezza privata circondano la zona con i loro veicoli senza permettere a nessuna delle persone del presidio di lasciare l’area fino alla mattina seguente. La mattina, quando arriva l’autorizzazione a lasciare la zona rossa, una ventina di persone iniziano a marciare verso la città di Melendugno. Per questi fatti 25 persone sono state rinviate a giudizio lo scorso 9 gennaio. Affrontano le accuse di partecipazione a una manifestazione non autorizzata, blocco stradale e insulto a un pubblico ufficiale.

Il 9 maggio prossimo si aprirà un altro processo in relazione alla costruzione del gasdotto Tap in Salento: i 19 imputati questa volta sono la stessa multinazionale Trans Adriatic Pipeline Italia, nella persona dei direttori, l’ex country manager, il project manager, il direttore dei lavori, i rappresentanti delle aziende che hanno eseguito i lavori.

Le accuse sono: i lavori in assenza di autorizzazioni, espianto di ulivi in periodo diverso da quello indicato e la costruzione di recinzioni con jersey, reti e filo spinato in zone agricole di “notevole interesse pubblico”, senza la Via (valutazione di impatto ambientale) in violazione di alcune prescrizioni;  la mancata impermeabilizzazione di alcune aree, lo scarico di reflui industriali e il deposito di rifiuti che hanno causato la contaminazione della falda sottostante con sostanze pericolose, tra cui Nichel, Manganese, Arsenico, Azoto Nitroso e Cromo esavalente, sostanza altamente cancerogena; l’estirpazione di macchia mediterranea e la realizzazione della recinzione per consentire l’espianto di ulivi in una “zona rossa” istituita tra novembre e dicembre 2017 con una ordinanza che secondo il pm, non può considerarsi autorizzazione.

Stiamo parlando della stessa zona rossa per la quale gli attivisti sono sotto accusa. Una situazione paradossale. Questo processo, che accorpa due filoni di inchiesta, si apre dopo una serie infinita di esposti da parte dei cittadini locali, gli stessi che sono sottoposti a giudizio, che di volta in volta hanno monitorato, rilevato e denunciato la mancanza di autorizzazioni e l’irregolarità delle procedure, nonché il superamento dei livelli di guardia delle sostanze pericolose successivamente all’apertura del cantiere.

Un processo finalmente è arrivato, ma nel frattempo i lavori per la costruzione del gasdotto continuano e decine di persone colpevoli di aver voluto difendere il loro territorio ricevono fogli di via, multe fino a 8000 euro e abusi da parte delle forze di polizia, anche queste oggetto di esposti che però non hanno ancora avuto seguito.

Non c’è solo il processo a dare merito al movimento No Tap: è ormai evidente che il punto di uscita a mare del microtunnel andrà a danneggiare habitat protetti da direttive europee la cui presenza veniva negata dalla società Tap. Salvo poi presentare al Ministero dell’Ambiente, del territorio e del mare una nuova richiesta di Valutazione d’impatto ambientale  (Via).

Anche quel cantiere è già attivo quando diventa chiaro che San Foca, marina di Melendugno, possiede tutti gli estremi per essere dichiarata Sic, sito di interesse comunitario, una zona di alto pregio ambientale dove un’opera come il gasdotto Tap non avrebbe mai dovuto approdare. Ci sarebbe da chiedere al presidente Michele Emiliano, che adesso chiede a gran voce i risarcimenti, perché la delibera del consiglio regionale che istituisce la zona protetta non è mai partita, nonostante i tanti solleciti ricevuti dai comuni interessati e i dati di Arpa Puglia che indicavano la presenza delle preziose specie.

Le tante vicende legate alla costruzione del gasdotto in Puglia viaggiano lungo corsie diverse.  La giustizia corre abbastanza velocemente per ostacolare le proteste, ma non così tanto da fermare i lavori.

Nonostante ciò, il variegato fronte No Tap continua a essere attivo. Non solo nella difesa dei propri attivisti ma nel continuare ad alimentare una discussione che inserisce quello che sta avvenendo in Salento nel contesto delle lotte ambientali e sociali in corso in tutto il mondo.  È sempre stato un suo punto di forza, una capacità straordinaria da parte di una realtà così piccola e isolata, di produrre e diffondere conoscenze e suggestioni: la mobilitazione ha nel tempo generato una commistione di soggetti che fluidificano la loro relazione con le conoscenze e la protesta. Esperti, attivisti esperti che diventano esperti, esperti che diventano attivisti.

Un intreccio che ha garantito e sostanziato una permanente e precisa attività di autoformazione e informazione che non solo ha permesso di istruire una serie di azioni legali, ma anche di ragionare su temi quali l’estrattivismo, la giustizia ambientale, il senso della difesa della terra.

Poche settimane fa l’ex ministro dell’energia dell’Ecuador Alberto Acosta, studioso dell’estrattivismo, era in Salento in un incontro organizzato anche dal Movimento No Tap e ha constatato come anche in Italia si verifichi quella logica perversa per cui chi difende la vita viene perseguitato. Era qui anche per dare il suo appoggio agli attivisti, come membro del Tribunale internazionale per i diritti della natura.

Qualcosa di molto più grande di un tubo si sta muovendo in Salento.

Serena Tarabini

da Dinamopress

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